Optical fiber has many advantages over copper and coaxial cables. Because of its good tensile strength, low mass, and relatively small size, the optical cable can maximize the utilization rate of the wiring duct, and can minimize installation problems as much as possible. That's why phone companies like to use fiber. Many of the existing cable ducts are already completely filled, making it impossible to add new cables. Replacing all cables with fiber optics saves a lot of space, and copper material manufacturers add a lot to the price of copper wire. Optical fiber is much lighter than copper wire, 1,000 twisted pairs of 1km long weigh 8,000kg, while the larger capacity of two 1km long two fibers weighs only 100kg, which greatly reduces the expensive mechanical support system that must be maintained needs. For new lines, fiber is preferred over copper because of its low installation costs.
Because optical fibers are not electrified, they are ideal for use in hazardous environments such as flammable, explosive, etc., where copper wire is used, and the sparks from the gap when the copper wire breaks will cause an explosion accident happened. Also, if the fiber is damaged, there is no risk of electric shock to humans. In addition, fiberglass is a corrosion-resistant material, unlike traditional copper and aluminum wire used for structural wiring installations.
Especially in terms of signal transmission, optical cables have incomparable advantages over traditional cables. Because optical fibers are not affected by the interference of electromagnetic fields, optical fibers provide a clearer signal than copper wires. Fiber optics are also unaffected by engine rotation or power failure. Moreover, the signal attenuation in optical fiber is small, and only one repeater is required every 30km on long lines, while one repeater is required every 5km in copper wire, which makes the optical fiber save a lot of money. In addition, the fiber optic cable can be used continuously for a length of 550 meters (1800 feet).
Fiber optic technology provides unparalleled flexibility and scalability to meet future needs. Optical fiber can provide much higher bandwidth than copper wire, which makes it used for advanced networking. Data rates in excess of 10 Gbps have been achieved, making optical fiber an ideal foundational cable technology for tomorrow's broadband networks.
Finally, the optical fiber does not leak light and is difficult to splice, so the optical fiber network is difficult to be intercepted by the network, and the safety factor is very high.
The reason why optical fiber is better than copper wire is due to the different physical structure inside. As the electrons move along the copper wire, they affect each other and are also affected by the electrons outside the copper wire. However, the photons in the fiber not only do not affect each other (no charge and discharge), but also are not affected by the photons outside the fiber.
It is precisely because of the above-mentioned advantages of optical fibers that since the 1980s, broadband optical fibers have gradually replaced narrow-band metal cables. However, the optical fiber itself also has shortcomings, such as brittle texture and low mechanical strength, which are its Achilles' heels. If you are not careful, it will be broken in the outer sheath of the optical cable. Construction personnel must have better cutting, connecting, branching and coupling techniques. However, as technology continues to evolve, these problems can be overcome.